Affordable Housing – Proper 8

Image by Flickr user: David of Earth


Overview – Affordable Housing

Focus Text: Luke 9:51-62

And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.”

Pastoral Reflection by José Luis Villaseñor, International Program Church Relations, Habitat for Humanity International

Churches can play a prophetic role and raise ethical questions when the complexities of homelessness and inadequate housing are being examined. When confronted with difficult challenges, first and foremost churches must always affirm the dignity of every human being and the right of every person to a habitat that allows him or her to grow into all God intended. We must also remember that God dwells in each person, even the homeless one lacking a place to live. As scripture reveals, “God created humankind in God’s image” (Genesis 1:27).

Personal Vignette by Chris Estes, Executive Director, North Carolina Housing Coalition

Your home, or more importantly, the kind of home you can access, determines or has a major impact on most every other important variable for your social and economic success. Where you live determines where your children go to school and how far you must go for goods, services or employment. The neighborhood around you determines your social interactions and your sense of safety and well-being. The quality of your home also has significant impact on your personal health in terms of environmental factors like lead paint, asbestos, mold, toxins, disease and injury.

Key Fact

Over 2 million North Carolinians face some form of housing problem. This means that they either pay more than 30 percent of their income for housing, live in housing with inadequate kitchen or plumbing facilities, or live in overcrowded housing with more than one person per room (not per bedroom, but per room). Almost 740,000 households do not have and cannot afford safe, stable housing in North Carolina.

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Focus Text – Luke 9:51-62

When the days drew near for him to be taken up, he set his face to go to Jerusalem. And he sent messengers ahead of him. On their way they entered a village of the Samaritans to make ready for him; but they did not receive him, because his face was set towards Jerusalem. When his disciples James and John saw it, they said, “Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from heaven and consume them?” But he turned and rebuked them. Then they went on to another village. As they were going along the road, someone said to him, “I will follow you wherever you go.”

And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.” To another he said, “Follow me.” But he said, “Lord, first let me go and bury my father.” But Jesus said to him, “Let the dead bury their own dead; but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God.” Another said, “I will follow you, Lord; but let me first say farewell to those at my home.” Jesus said to him, “No one who puts a hand to the plough and looks back is fit for the kingdom of God.”
Luke 9:51-62

Additional Texts

Alas for those who devise wickedness and evil deeds on their beds! When the morning dawns, they perform it, because it is in their power. They covet fields, and seize them; houses, and take them away; they oppress householder and house, people and their inheritance. Therefore, thus says the LORD: Now, I am devising against this family an evil from which you cannot remove your necks; and you shall not walk haughtily, for it will be an evil time.
Micah 2:1-3

[The wicked] swallow down riches and vomit them up again; God casts them out of their bellies. They will not look on rivers, the streams flowing with honey and curds. They will give back the fruit of their toil, and will not swallow it down; from the profit of their trading they will get no enjoyment. For they have crushed and abandoned the poor; they have seized a house that they did not build.
Job 20:15, 17-19

I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and delight in my people; no more shall the sound of weeping be heard in it, or the cry of distress. No more shall there be in it an infant that lives but a few days, or an old person who does not live out a lifetime; for one who dies at a hundred years will be considered a youth, and one who falls short of a hundred will be considered accursed. They shall build houses and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit. They shall not build and another inhabit; they shall not plant and another eat; for like the days of a tree shall the days of my people be, and my chosen shall long enjoy the work of their hands.
Isaiah 65:19-22

Do not let your hearts be troubled. Believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father’s house there are many dwelling places. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go to prepare a place for you, I will come back again and will take you to myself, so that where I am, there you may be also.
John 14:1-3

Other Lectionary Texts

  • I Kings 19:15-16, 19-21
  • II Kings 2:1-2, 6-14
  • Psalm 16
  • Psalm 77:1-2, 11-20
  • Galatians 5:1, 13-25
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Commentary on Luke 9:51-62

What does it mean to follow Jesus? “To follow” is a key concept throughout Luke’s gospel, and Luke 9 offers crucial answers to this question. For Jesus’ disciples, following Jesus means being sent to the villages and relying on the hospitality of others, taking “nothing for your journey, no staff, nor bag, nor bread, nor money — not even an extra tunic” (9:3). Following Jesus entails offering the hungry crowd something to eat, even when all they have is five loaves and two fish (9:13). By following Jesus, Peter is able to declare that he is “the Messiah of God” (9:20). Following Jesus means taking up the cross – the epitome of losing one’s life in order to save it. In our passage for today, Jesus emphasizes the radical devotion required to follow him. There is no room for hedging bets, because following Jesus means abandoning lives of security – a security found in homes, in tradition, in family. “The first would-be follower makes a spontaneous, enthusiastic offer of unconditioned allegiance. Jesus’ sobering answer drives home the gravity of discipleship. The Son of Man is en route; he lives the life of a homeless wanderer, having no shelter, no home, no family – none of the things that people usually consider requisite for ordinary life, ‘nowhere to lay his head.’ Even the animals are better off” (Anchor, p. 834). Glory and healing, death and servanthood; these are the paradoxes of a life spent following Jesus.

When we read this passage through the lens of the contemporary issue of homelessness and the crisis in affordable housing, a different set of images comes to the fore. Jesus says here that while even animals have homes, he has nowhere to lay his head. He has become homeless, a vagrant. What does it mean to follow the one who literally became homeless for our sake? What would it look like to follow Jesus such that even our homes become sanctuaries for the poor, the oppressed, the homeless? Do we have the moral imagination to envision our church buildings as shelter for those who need it? Do we have the courage to challenge the structures of our society that inevitably make some rich and others poor? And do we really trust Jesus enough to renounce our own sources of security? This calling to a costly discipleship resonates throughout Luke’s gospel; what might it look like in our own lives?

By Chris Liu-Beers, Program Associate, North Carolina Council of Churches

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Pastoral Reflection on Luke 9:51-62

Serving on the staff of Habitat For Humanity has enabled me to reflect quite a bit on the problem of inadequate housing and how it is part of bigger issues that keep people in poverty. Here at Habitat, the focus continues to be working toward a world of decent houses for everyone. Yet building houses is also a vehicle for a much larger goal, transformational and sustainable community development. Key elements of this transformation and development work are to promote the betterment of people spiritually, physically, socially, economically and emotionally, to listen to the felt needs of the people and empower them to make changes, to promote reconciliation across ethnic, racial, economic, social, national, religious, political, cultural and other barriers in order to solve the everyday issues faced by communities everywhere, to promote local leadership in order to guarantee long-lasting transformation, and to share and demonstrate respectful stewardship of all human, economic and natural resources.

Jesus’ teaching and practice are the guiding principles and the measurement for this work, whether in Brazil or North Carolina. Churches can be part of the solution to the housing crisis through many creative methods: providing material to help shelter the homeless, investing in education efforts that promote the development of people and communities, volunteering with Habitat or other housing ministries, or advocating for just policies that increase access to affordable housing and shelter for the homeless.

In particular, churches can play a prophetic role and raise ethical questions when the complexities of homelessness and inadequate housing are being examined. When confronted with difficult challenges, first and foremost churches must always affirm the dignity of every human being and the right of every person to a habitat that allows him or her to grow into all God intended. We must also remember that God dwells in each person, even the homeless one lacking a place to live. As scripture reveals, “God created humankind in God’s image” (Genesis 1:27).

Churches should also point out the economic inequalities that create poverty. Buildings that shelter no one stand in front of people without the shelter of a roof. People with no place to lay their heads are not far from those living in million dollar homes. Such dichotomy is far from being the result of a lack of resources; rather, it flows from the unjust distribution of goods that God intended for all.

Jesus told his disciples “the poor you will have with you always” (Matthew 26:11). Interpreting these words as a blessing rather than an inevitable and hopeless eventuality, Jesus is saying, “Now that I’m physically gone, find me among the poor, incarnate their reality, and work with them to bring a new society into existence.” In the focus lectionary text for today, Jesus says that the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head. Even when Jesus came into the world, there was no place for his family in the inn (Lk 2:7). Jesus’ words, “no place to lay his head,” reflect the daily reality of many in North Carolina and around the world. In these homeless and marginalized persons, Christians are called to recognize Christ himself. If Jesus can be found in the least of these, then the single mother who cannot pay the rent, the homeless man on the street, or the elderly man who can no longer afford to stay in his home are all incarnations of Christ. We are called to offer them love and justice.

More uncommon wisdom for Kingdom behavior is taught by Jesus in the famous Sermon on the Mount. Jesus’ followers are not to conform to the world but are to be agents of change. Blessed are the poor in spirit…those who mourn…the meek…those who hunger and thirst for righteousness…the merciful…the pure in heart…the peacemakers…those who are persecuted because of righteousness. These are the values that will empower those who follow him to be the salt of the earth and light of the world. These are also the behaviors that will bring forth the Kingdom on earth as it is in heaven.

A number of churches in North Carolina are addressing the problem of housing locally, regionally and globally. Members of Myers Park Presbyterian Church are currently working to assist Habitat Charlotte with the construction of multi-family housing while also providing leadership in the construction of a house on a school campus. In addition, Myers Park has agreed to be one of several lead sponsors for an interfaith build, and they expect to join numerous other North Carolina churches in building several homes in El Salvador in July of 2007. Working with the members of Myers Park in El Salvador will be several other churches, among them members of Watts Street Baptist Church in Durham, Littleton United Methodist Church and Apex United Methodist Church. Some of them have been sending teams for years to build simple, concrete block homes in small towns affected by hurricanes, earthquakes, and the lingering effects of a long civil war.

These same congregations are also addressing housing needs locally. The Apex Outreach Service Project was established in 2000. For one week each summer, youth and adults from several churches across North Carolina come together to form a community of workers to make repairs on the homes of needy people in Apex, New Hill and Holly Springs. Watts Street Baptist members founded the Habitat for Humanity chapter in Durham and have since been involved in helping build numerous homes. Currently, Watts Street Baptist is sponsoring a Habitat house that will help a family displaced by Hurricane Katrina to rebuild their lives in Durham.

My work with Habitat involves connecting churches with greater material resources to congregations with fewer such assets in a common mission to serve the poor, both in the United States and in countries around the world. The process empowers the local host partners who best know the local needs, while also joining churches across international boundaries to worship together, to encourage and learn from each other and to be in common service to others. The joy is seeing how Jesus Christ has touched hearts and transformed lives on both sides of the partnership.

Ultimately the transformation of our communities is a gift from God, a gift that comes in the form of two interrelated commandments: love God more than anything, and love your neighbor as you would yourself. As God’s people grow into this Kingdom vision, they are able to put lives, resources and imagination to work to develop ministries that produce long-lasting changes. By putting God first, we can better bring our neighbor into view. Together, we can work to empower all communities to achieve the abundant life that God wants for us all.

By José Luis Villaseñor, International Program Church Relations, Habitat for Humanity International

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Worship Aids for Luke 9:51-62

Responsive Reading

O Lord, by whose cross all enmity is brought to an end,
Break down the walls that separate us.

Help us understand how to tear down the former things.
Show us how to bring renewal to your world.

Awaken in us the passion to dream.
Guide us as we take small steps toward great visions.

We ask that you give us wisdom and strength,
Patience and compassion.

Lord, who can make all things new, open our eyes.
Let us see in our own communities and around the globe those who are without shelter.

Today we lift up to you those who yearn for a simple, decent and affordable place to call home.
Give us courage to respond.

As we give of ourselves, let us be grateful for those who give to us.
By the power of your Spirit, make us one.

(from the “International Day of Prayer and Action for Habitat for Humanity,”

Prayer of Confession

God, our help in every age, help us now. We admit we are afraid to practice the hospitality and welcome you expect of us. When someone in need approaches, we shrink away. Is it fear? Is it guilt? Or is it that all of a sudden our own neediness is awakened? Help us to cultivate that place inside each of us where we remember our home is with You—a home that is warm, where things always work out in the end, and where love has the final word. We want to share your grace with others. Help us to be the bearers of your grace in every act of care, in every act of welcome.

(from the National Council of Churches’ “Poverty March 2003,”

Litany for Homeless People

We pray for peace and justice, mercy and forgiveness
Open our eyes that we may see.

We pray for an end to homelessness and hunger, unemployment and illness.
Open our ears to the cries of pain.

We pray for those living on the streets, huddled in overnight shelters and living too many to a room.
Move us to serve these our sisters and brothers.

We pray for the refugees in the world; those gathered in tent cities, walking the face of the earth and without a country to call home.
May we welcome them with open arms.

We pray for communities and people that serve the homeless and refugee. We give thanks to God for their ministry.
May we support their ministry in deed and prayer.

(Adapted from a litany of the CWS Minn-Kota Regional Office with Minnesota Refugee Services,

Alternate Responsive Reading

For every child who is sick or dying because her family has been denied medical care,
God in your mercy, hear our prayer for health care.

For every child who calls the streets his home because no public housing is available,
God in your mercy, hear our prayer for housing.

For every child who is taught by the lack of text books and crumbling public schools that her mind and her dreams count for nothing,
God in your mercy hear our prayer for quality education.

For every child who this day is taking care of his younger siblings,
God in your mercy hear our prayer for affordable childcare.

For every child who is scared because her dad and mom do not earn enough to pay the bills,
God in your mercy, hear our prayer for jobs at a living wage.

We know that you do not forget us, God,
God in your mercy, hear our prayer and come quickly to save!

(from the Rev. Noelle Damico, Catalyst, School of Theology, University of the Poor,
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Suggested Hymns for Affordable Housing

The Day is Near
Gather Hymnal (Catholic) 136

Hope of the World
United Methodist Hymnal 178
Lutheran Worship 377
Presbyterian Hymnal 360
The Hymnal (1982) 472
Chalice Hymnal (Disciples of Christ) 538
New Century Hymnal (United Church of Christ) 46

Lord, Who Left the Highest Heaven
Moravian Book of Worship 692

Lord, Whose Love Through Humble Service
Chalice Hymnal (Disciples of Christ) 461
Moravian Book of Worship 688
The Hymnal (1982) 610
Presbyterian Hymnal 427
United Methodist Hymnal 581
Gather Hymnal (Catholic) 681

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Quotes about Affordable Housing

Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to be free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!
Emma Lazarus, poem inscribed on the Statue of Liberty

Homelessness is not just an isolated social evil. It is the catalyst and the breeding ground for other problems such as marriage difficulties and family breakup, stress, unemployment and alcoholism.
Eva Burrows

The works of mercy are the opposite of the works of war: feeding the hungry, sheltering the homeless, nursing the sick, visiting the prisoner.
Dorothy Day

In a rich society, no one should be allowed to suffer from deprivation such as homelessness, starvation and illness. This ideal is essential, not simply as a matter of human good, but as the price we pay for a measure of domestic tranquility.
John Kenneth Galbraith

The hope of the whole world rests on the shoulders of a homeless man.
Rich Mullins

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Vignette about Affordable Housing

It All Begins At Home

It all begins at home. This tag line came to me when we were developing the Campaign for Housing Carolina with the goal of raising $50 million a year for the North Carolina Housing Trust Fund, the only state funding for affordable housing in North Carolina. When we presented this idea to our first potential funder, we drew a picture of housing as the center or hub of a wheel with issues like schools, public health, quality of life, asset building, and security around the edge of wheel.

Your home, or more importantly, the kind of home you can access, determines or has a major impact on most every other important variable for your social and economic success. Where you live determines where your children go to school and how far you must go for goods, services or employment. The neighborhood around you determines your social interactions and your sense of safety and well-being. The quality of your home also has significant impact on your personal health in terms of environmental factors like lead paint, asbestos, mold, toxins, disease and injury.

I truly believe it is the single most important factor in our quality of life. There are many things individuals and families can juggle to manage their economic well-being, but shelter is one of the most basic needs. We will eat less, wear used or discount clothes, go without healthcare, all to access a home that will protect us from the elements and provide a sense of safety.

Ultimately, I believe it to be a moral calling that we join in the struggle for adequate housing for everyone. My religious background taught me to believe in the inherent worth and dignity of every person and to treat others as I would want to be treated. I first learned about the importance of housing when in graduate school pursuing social work and while interning at a family resource center in a low income community. This led me to study at the planning school with a concentration in housing and community development. I came to understand that housing was the most basic building block of personal well-being, and since housing was also a technical field involving finance and construction, my best role was that of an advocate who could link the technical with social justice and economic security.

Housing issues are significant in our state. Over 43% of those who rent do not make enough to afford a fair market two bedroom apartment (one that is slightly below average). The generally accepted standard of affordability is that a household spend no more than 30% of its income on housing and utilities. However, the National Low Income Housing Coalition estimates that 71% of very low income households (those whose incomes are 30% or less of the area median income) pay more than 30% of household income for housing costs.

Some of the people most impacted by housing issues are persons with disabilities and fixed income seniors. Persons with only disability income receive $603 a month, which means they can afford $181 a month for rent and utilities. In the past, persons with disabilities could access rental assistance through Section 8 housing vouchers. With a decade of chronic underfunding by the federal government, the waiting list for this resource averages from five to ten years in most communities.

Quality affordable homes are necessary for healthy, vibrant, and inclusive communities in which all citizens are welcome and have the opportunity for economic success. We all have a stake in the well-being of our neighbors. Doing good truly does begin at home.

By Chris Estes, Executive Director, North Carolina Housing Coalition

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Contacts and Resources for Affordable Housing

A Place to Lay Their Heads
North Carolina Council of Churches’ biblically-based curriculum on inadequate housing in rural North Carolina produced in conjunction with Habitat for Humanity, entitled “A Place to Lay Their Heads.”
North Carolina Housing Coalition, a private, non-profit membership organization working for decent, safe, and affordable housing that promotes self-determination and stable communities for low-income North Carolinians.
The North Carolina Coalition to End Homelessness is a statewide membership nonprofit created to secure resources, encourage public dialogue, and advocate for public policy change to end homelessness. The Coalition was organized as a response to the ever-increasing number of homeless people, especially homeless families, in North Carolina and the growing need for advocacy for homeless citizens and the organizations that serve them. This statewide membership association of activists and organizations is committed to meeting the needs of homeless citizens through targeted advocacy and increased public awareness.
North Carolina Justice Center, North Carolina’s leading private, nonprofit anti-poverty organization. Its mission is to reduce and eliminate poverty in North Carolina by helping to ensure that every North Carolina household gains access to the resources, services and fair treatment that it needs in order to enjoy economic security.
Habitat for Humanity, a nonprofit, ecumenical Christian organization dedicated to eliminating substandard housing and homelessness worldwide and to making adequate, affordable shelter a matter of conscience and action. Habitat is founded on the conviction that every man, woman and child should have a simple, decent, affordable place to live in dignity and safety.
Center for Community Self-Help: the nonprofit Center for Community Self-Help and its financing affiliates, Self-Help Credit Union and Self-Help Ventures Fund, comprise one of the nation’s leading community development financial institutions. Its mission is to create ownership and economic opportunities for minorities, women, rural residents, and low-wealth families.
North Carolina Association of Community Development Corporations’ mission is to strengthen the North Carolina economy and create a better tomorrow for all North Carolinians by enhancing community development corporations (CDCs) in their role of creating prosperous communities for the long term.
The National Alliance to End Homelessness is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to mobilize the nonprofit, public and private sectors of society in an alliance to end homelessness. The Alliance represents a united effort to address the root causes of homelessness and challenge society’s acceptance of homelessness as an inevitable by-product of American life. Guiding their work is the “Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness.” The “Ten Year Plan” identifies our nation’s current weaknesses in addressing the problem and lays out practical steps that our nation can take to change our present course and truly end homelessness within ten years.
Interfaith Hospitality Network (IHN) is a nationwide effort which provides the opportunity for churches and other communities of faith to literally open their doors to homeless families during the week, when their buildings are typically not heavily used. North Carolina currently has nine active chapters throughout the state, with two more in development. IHN is a program of the non-profit part of Family Promise ( that seeks to help homeless and low-income Americans achieve sustainable independence.
National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty works to prevent and end homelessness by serving as the legal arm of the nationwide movement to end homelessness. To achieve its mission, the organization pursues three main strategies: impact litigation, policy advocacy, and public education. NLCHP strives to place homelessness in the larger context of poverty. By taking this approach, the organization aims to address homelessness as a very visible manifestation of deeper causes, including: the shortage of affordable housing, insufficient income, and inadequate social services. NLCHP addresses the causes of homelessness, not just its symptoms.
National Coalition for the Homeless works to bring about the systemic changes necessary to prevent and end homelessness and to protect the rights of people experiencing homelessness by engaging in policy advocacy. Our advocacy includes work in the areas of Housing Justice, Health Care Justice, Economic Justice, and Civil Rights.

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Key Facts about Affordable Housing

1. Over 1 million households do not have and cannot afford a safe, stable home in NC; the average hourly wage needed to afford a two-bedroom apartment at fair market rent is $13.63 – almost twice as much as minimum wage. 10,519 households go without heat in the winter; and more than 16,548 homes still lack indoor plumbing.

2. According to the 2010 American Community Survey conducted by the US Census, over 17,000 North Carolina houses did not have complete plumbing defined as hot and cold running water, a toilet and a bath or shower and over 26,000 did not have complete kitchens. Almost 90,000 households do not have access to a telephone.

3. The generally accepted definition of affordability is for a household to pay no more than 30 percent of its annual income on housing. Families who pay more than 30 percent of their income for housing are considered cost burdened and may have difficulty affording necessities such as food, clothing, transportation and medical care. An estimated 12 million renter and homeowner households now pay more than 50 percent of their annual incomes for housing, and a family with one full-time worker earning the minimum wage cannot afford the local fair-market rent for a two-bedroom apartment anywhere in the United States.

In North Carolina:

  • 34.4 percent of home owners’ housing is unaffordable;
  • 52.3 percent of renters’ housing is unaffordable.

4. In 2009, the fair market rent was $693 for a 2-bedroom apartment in North Carolina. In 2012, the fair market rent increased to $709. The cost increased 30 percent from 2000 to 2011. A household’s income would need to be $13.63 per hour to afford this average. Federal, and North Carolina, minimum wage increased to $7.25 July 24, 2009, which means a household requires nearly two full-time minimum wage jobs to afford housing.

5. Over 20 North Carolina counties have no homeless shelters, forcing people experiencing homelessness to double up, live in places not suitable for human habitation or to leave their communities. Communities without shelters find that households are more likely to live with relatives in overcrowded or substandard housing. Yet clearly, lack of lack of decent affordable housing is at the center of both rural and urban homelessness

6. The 2012 report on the state of homelessness in America found that despite the bad economy, homelessness decreased by 1 percent between 2009 and 2011. The decrease was likely due to the Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP, funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009) which was a $1.5 billion federal effort to prevent a recession-related increase in homelessness. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the unemployment rate as 8.2 percent in July 2012. Unemployment is an obvious contributor to homelessness.

7. The severe problems in the housing sector and the growing number of foreclosures are exacerbating the risks of homelessness. Between 2009 and 2010, foreclosure activity continued to increase with nearly 50,000 more homes in foreclosure in 2010 than in 2009. Foreclosures increased from 2.83 million units in 2009 to 2.88 million units in 2010, a 2 percent increase. Nationally, 1 out of every 45 housing units was in foreclosure in 2010. When foreclosure occurs, renters usually are forced to vacate, even if they have not missed any rent payments and regardless of whether they have access to funds needed for the up-front costs of a new apartment.

8. Effective May 20, 2009, President Obama signed the Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009 which extends a range of protections to tenants in foreclosed properties. Under the new legislation, all tenants must get a 90 day notice prior to eviction due to foreclosure. In addition (with some exceptions) tenants who have leases can continue to live in their homes until the end of the term of their lease. The rights of Section 8 tenants are also protected because the new owner at foreclosure must accept both the tenant’s lease and the housing assistance payment (HAP) contract. The law expires at the end of 2012.


  1. North Carolina Housing Coalition (NCHC), “Housing Facts and Statistics in NC,”
  2. U.S. Census Bureau, “Selected Housing Characteristics, 2010 American Community Survey”
  3. US Department of Housing and Urban Development, “Affordable Housing,” See also U.S. Census Bureau, “Selected Housing Characteristics, 2010 American Community Survey,”
  4. National Low-Income Housing Coalition, “State Summary Table for Out of Reach 2009,” See also 2011 and 2012,,
  5. North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, “NC Interagency Council for Coordinating Homeless Programs Annual Report 2008,” http
  6. National Alliance to End Homelessness, The State of Homelessness in America,”; for labor statistics
    see the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
  7. National Alliance to End Homelessness, The State of Homelessness in America,”; see also Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “Number of Homeless Families Climbing
    Due to Recession,” January 8, 2009,
    See also
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